RESEARCH 》 A study on WAN Optimization Techniques

There are various techniques with which one can optimize their WAN Network Data. Any long distance communication can be considered as WAN Network. A decade ago any network connecting two countries, considered as a WAN network, and a network within a city as MAN and soon. But these days in general any long distance communication is considered as WAN Network. Such as your Mobile communication networks, Satellite networks, Space Networks (Deep space networks), Trans-Atlantic cable networks, etc.

You can optimize WAN links with techniques such as:

  • File caching
  • CDN
  • WAN Optimization Devices:
    • Commercial solutions: Riverbed, CISCO, etc
    • or with open-source solution: TOFFEE
  • QoS
  • Compression
  • Data De-duplication

Here is my Youtube video for more in depth coverage of this topic:

CDN Content Delivery Networks (a.k.a Content Distribution Networks): As the name says CDN technology allows you to share your content to large masses. CDN is a way you can scale up your website (or just about any content such as images, videos, live-concert streaming etc). You can build your own private CDN Networks or get can get CDN subscription commercial services via third-party CDN firms such as Akamai, Limelight, etc. I consider CDN as one among the WAN Optimization technologies, since it gives content owners/creators not only an option to distribute their content to masses across the world, but it also provides various benefits such as reliability, speed (faster page loads), etc.

For example Facebook uses Akamai CDN. You can find the proof in the below screenshot of the facebook page view source code:
Facebook using Akamai CDN

And in other case such as Google who built their own private super large CDN Network. In a case like Google they do not rely on third-party commercial CDN providers. Instead they custom built from scratch their content distribution network according to their needs.
Here is my Youtube video for more in depth coverage of this topic:

Data De-duplication: Data de-duplication is a technique by which you can de-duplicate chunks of data (such as packet bytes and packets). De-duplication is a great way to eliminate redundant data. Unlike loss-less compression which is not so effective in all cases, de-duplication helps us save known types of data. Such as known protocols, patterns such as byte sequences with respect to protocol and so on.

For example, in TOFFEE I do packet-wise byte-wise data de-duplication which I call it as Packet Templating feature. It is called Templating since I created thousands of templates for known frequently occurring traffic patterns specific to the packet's application protocol, packet's transport layer protocol (such as TCP/UDP) and so on. It is the Packet templating feature in TOFFEE which is lot more effective saving bandwidth in VoIP sessions, HTTPS (SSL sessions), remote desktop data (such as VNC, Teamviewer), remote MySQL Database connectivity, etc. Here is my Youtube video for more in depth coverage of this topic:

File Caching: File caching is the most oldest and fundamental WAN Optimization technology. One of the best example is caching feature in your browser which does not download pages or resources if they already exist in the browser file cache. And the other best example is your HTTP proxy file cache. Squid-cache is the most popular open-source file caching proxy for the Web supporting HTTP, HTTPS, FTP, and more.

File caching technique reduces bandwidth and improves response times by caching and reusing frequently-requested cache-able web pages (and other file resources such as images, css, java scripts and soon). But unfortunately due to increase in use of dynamic SaaS web applications, file caching is no longer effective in optimizing modern dynamic websites such as Facebook, Youtube, Google-mail, your banking portals, etc. File caching is not applicable for dynamic data such as realtime VoIP, network data-base connections, streaming, Netflix, corporate back-end web-applications/portals and so on. Since the content shared and transferred is not in the form of individual files.

File caching is also useless if you access a file which is not so commonly accessed. The files stored in the cache for certain period of time, eventually it expire and they get purged. So it works purely on luck basis and the real world use-cases are getting limited day by day.

CDN is build with thousands of file-caching servers deployed world-wide. Or in other words CDN is a super-set technology which uses the file-caching technique within its infrastructure. Lets assume you upload a Youtube video, once Google servers processes the same, the video is slowly distributed to various servers (in various geographical datacenters) across the world. And any user residing close to any of these servers may get content from these servers. And if the file does not exist in this server, it may pull the file from the main datacenter (or somewhere), and stores it in the file cache for future use. File caching technique used in CDN is a well scripted predictable choreography. But file caching employed in a generic WAN optimization device is not that effective for the same reasons discussed above. Here is my Youtube video for more in depth coverage of this topic:

Data Compression: Data compression specifically lossless compression is the most common WAN Optimization technique. Although data compression is not so effective for encrypted data (including VPN links), it is still highly effective in optimizing a majority of WAN Network data. If you have VPN links, try to install your WAN Optimization devices (such as TOFFEE), before the VPN devices. This way you can pass the optimized data into your VPN appliances. There are various losses compression algorithms exist and some of the popular ones are: LZ77, LZO, LZ4, LZ4-HC, etc.

TOFFEE supports LZ77, LZO and LZ4. LZO algorithm is enabled as a default kernel compile time option in any pre-compiled TOFFEE kernel binary releases (and OS firmware images) so far (till date 29-Jun-2016).

NASA have their own lossless compression variants and often they are customized. One of the well known algorithms which NASA uses is the LOCO-I (stands for Low Complexity Lossless Compression) which is mainly meant for compressing images. LOCO-I is a kind of lossless compression variant of JPEG. Which is why it is also can be sometimes called as JPEG-LS (stands for JPEG-Lossless). Based on LOCO-I NASA did hardware based solution which is FPGA-LOCO. Since it is hardware based, it is good in performance, reliability and extremely energy efficient.

Apart from this CCSDS have their own variant of RICE lossless compression algorithm.

Read article: A study on Deep Space Networks (DSN) For more information on Deep Space Communication - Space Lossless compression refer my Youtube video below:

For example :: TOFFEE Optimized Satellite ISP Network:
TOFFEE Optimized Satellite ISP Network

Here is my Youtube video for more in depth coverage on this topic:

Suggested Topics:

WAN Optimization and Network Optimization

💎 TOFFEE-MOCHA new bootable ISO: Download
💎 TOFFEE Data-Center Big picture and Overview: Download PDF


Bulk Ping Tests - WAN Acceleration ↗
Saturday' 13-Mar-2021

Building my own CDN - Google PageSpeed Insights - Update: 22-Jul-2016 ↗
Saturday' 13-Mar-2021
Ever since after I launched my new The TOFFEE Project website on 1-May'2016, I can see there is a steep increase in traffic. Soon after the launch when I monitored its Alexa rankings it was reporting about 12 Million or so. But once it is getting more and more traffic the Alexa rankings shot up and now currently it shows around 2 Million (as on 22-July-2016). Alexa is an excellent tool to monitor your overall website global ranking and indirectly its performance. Unlike Google Analytics which is bound one or other way into Google's SEO. Alexa gives you a second opinion about your website's growth.

Off-Grid Home Lab Research Solar Installation ↗
Saturday' 13-Mar-2021

My sample Wireshark packet capture files for research ↗
Saturday' 13-Mar-2021
I have a huge repository (or collection) of sample Wireshark packet capture files for reference. I use them extensively for research and development of TOFFEE as well to understand various protocol PDUs and protocol standards. I personally collected various test captures via Wireshark during my test and experimental research setup during the course of TOFFEE development. Say if you are a student and learning Networking and or say VoIP data and VoIP packets, you can analyse my VoIP sample Wireshark captures. Or in other case assume you are doing some quick research (or development) and want to refer few handful of VoIP packets then you can download and analyse my sample packet capture files.

Internet optimization through TOFFEE-DataCenter WAN Optimization Demo ↗
Saturday' 13-Mar-2021

Introducing TrueBench - a high resolution CPU benchmarking system ↗
Saturday' 13-Mar-2021
TrueBench is an unique open-source benchmarking system in which the core system performance and efficiency parameters are measured at extreme high resolution in the order of several million/billion µ-seconds for a given specific task. TrueBench is a part of The TOFFEE Project research. With TrueBench Raspberry Pi 3, Raspberry Pi 2B, Raspberry Pi 2 and other embedded SoC devices are benchmarked and you can do a comparative analysis with standard mainstream x86 devices.

Youtubeで見る - [1822//1] Deep Space Communication - Episode1 - Introduction ↗

Replacing in Lab Intel Core i7 5820K Desktop PC with Intel Celeron 1037U Mini-PC ↗
Saturday' 13-Mar-2021
As a research experiment I replaced my Intel Core i7 5820K desktop PC with my Intel Celeron 1037U Mini-PC as my everyday desktop system. This is an attempt to reduce my overall monthly power consumption. As well an attempt to do feasibility tests and research to know how far Mini PC will dominate the market in future and to study the real potential of Mini PCs.

Moon Base and Space Colonization - First we need fast InterPlanetary Internet ↗
Saturday' 13-Mar-2021

Bitcoin Mining - Blockchain Technology - Network Optimization via TOFFEE Data-Center WAN Optimization ↗
Saturday' 13-Mar-2021
Bitcoin Mining - Blockchain Technology - Network Optimization via TOFFEE Data-Center WAN Optimization

Live demo - Data Transfer - High bandwidth to Low bandwidth ↗
Saturday' 13-Mar-2021
I always wanted to do some real experiments and research on packet flow patterns from High-bandwidth to Low-bandwidth networks via networking devices. This is something can be analyzed via capturing Network stack buffer data and other parameters, bench-marking, and so on. But eventually the data-transfer nature and other aspects is often contaminated due to the underlying OS and the way Network stack is implemented. So to understand the nature of packet flow from Higher to Lower bandwidth and vice-versa such as Lower to higher bandwidth, I thought I experiment with various tools and things which physically we can observe this phenomena.

Featured Educational Video:
Youtubeで見る - [1672//1] Linux Kernel skbuff data-structure - part13 - Parsing skb ip-packet ↗

Skype VOIP Data - WAN Acceleration ↗
Saturday' 13-Mar-2021

TOFFEE-DataCenter WAN Optimization :: TOFFEE-DATACENTER-1.3.25-1-portable ↗
Saturday' 13-Mar-2021
Download TOFFEE-DATACENTER-1.3.25-1-portable.tar.xz via Google Drive share: platform independent (portable) source: TOFFEE-DATACENTER-1.2.2-1-portable.tar.xz * Alternatively download from SOURCEFORGE project site. * Here are the TOFFEE-DataCenter supported features. * To know more about the project kindly refer TOFFEE-Datacenter Documentation, News and Updates

The TOFFEE Project :: TOFFEE :: WAN Optimization ↗
Saturday' 13-Mar-2021
TOFFEE is an open-source WAN Optimization (Network Performance Optimization) software which can be used to optimize your critical networks.

Power consumption of my Home Lab devices for research ↗
Saturday' 13-Mar-2021
Here is my power-consumption measurements of various devices deployed within my home lab. I measured via my kill-a-watt sort of power-meter which is fairly reliable and accurate. I checked its accuracy with various standard load such as Philips LED laps and other constant power-consuming devices to make sure that the power-meter is precise.

Youtubeで見る - [495//1] VLOG - TOFFEE-Mocha-1.0.14-1-rpi2 - Raspberry Pi WAN Emulator release - 24-jun-2016 ↗

Grid Hosting vs CDN Hosting ↗
Saturday' 13-Mar-2021

Research :: Optimization of network data (WAN Optimization) at various levels:
Network File level network data WAN Optimization

Learn Linux Systems Software and Kernel Programming:
Linux, Kernel, Networking and Systems-Software online classes

Hardware Compression and Decompression Accelerator Cards:
TOFFEE Architecture with Compression and Decompression Accelerator Card

TOFFEE-DataCenter on a Dell Server - Intel Xeon E5645 CPU:
TOFFEE-DataCenter screenshots on a Dual CPU - Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU E5645 @ 2.40GHz - Dell Server